Final Warning Oct 2018 Yellowstone Volcano Eruption! Experts Discuss Warning Signs Of Eruption P2March 13, 2019
At Yellowstone is actually at boiling temperature and as you go down it gets hotter and hotter so that’s that’s creates a pressurized system of a boiling aquifer a boiling groundwater and that becomes unstable it can cause earthquakes and of course it causes the thermal features that we see.
Everywhere Yellowstone that makes Yellowstone so famous the geysers the fumaroles or steam vents the hot springs that are so beautiful and contains so many different kinds of of life and thermofoil bacteria so that’s that’s what makes it Yellowstone special and it’s pretty much all due to this underground magma system so we have these massive eruptions that are really quite rare and then we have these lava flows that happen more frequently but still not the last one with 70,000.
Years ago but this would be a really big event if it happened again within the park it might cause forest fires it might dam up rivers and.
It would cause a lot of a lot of commotion and anxiety within Yellowstone but it would have very little long long range effect it wouldn’t affect people in in states that are hundreds.
Of miles away certainly we have other big events that occur at Yellowstone for example earthquakes in 1959 there was a magnitude 7.5 that occurred out near had can like caused a lot of damage in the park and also caused a lot of changes to the thermal areas within Yellowstone the Teton Fault is on the border of the Teton Mountains south of the park and is it potentially could have a very big earthquake associated with it beyond that we have the hydrothermal explosions.
The groundwater system becomes too pressurized.
And erupt during some sort of a perhaps an earthquake or due to a change in lake level and what happens is you get the the groundwater system can conform really large holes.
In the ground sometimes hundreds of feet across this is a turbid Lake right here Indian pond and Mary Bay all of these were created in the last fifteen thousand years by explosions of the hydrothermal system in this case no magma is erupted and there.
Are fairly localized events in terms of their damage but they’re still definitely relevant for what’s going on at.
Yellowstone and need to be watched almost every year somewhere in Yellowstone there is a small hydrothermal explosion sometimes they might only be a couple feet across but we find evidence for them sometimes we see a little bit of smoke coming out or fumes coming out in a place we didn’t expect it sometimes somebody hears it and in in lucky cases we actually get to witness one of these explosions and that’s happened every few years as well we have no way of predicting these explosions.
Especially the smaller ones but we hope that as time goes by we’ll get more and more knowledge about how they work and.
Maybe get the chance that someday we’ll be able to to be able to have some predictive capabilities for these exploit Jake lowenstern I work for the US Geological Survey and I’m the scientist in charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory today we’re going to talk about some of the eruptions that occur at Yellowstone.
Have occurred in the past how big they get how we know when they might be coming what we need to worry about what we don’t need to worry about the last one of these mammoth.
Eruptions so-called super eruption was six hundred and forty thousand years ago and that created this this green deposit the lava Creek tuff there were three of these really large eruptions there’s a lava Creek tuff then there’s the huckleberry Ridge tuff that’s 2.1 million years ago and then you can just make out down here this is the Mesa Falls tough and it erupted 1.3 million years ago it was a bit smaller than the other two.
Eruptions since the eruption of the lava Creek tuff 640 thousand years ago we’ve had a lot of eruptions within the caldera probably 80 different eruptions both within the caldera and outside the.
Caldera many of them are these really large lava flows the most recent lava flow was down here on the pitch Doan plateau 70,000 years ago and it’s a really enormous.
Eruptive unit these are big eruptions but they’re just within Yellowstone and they don’t they don’t appear to be highly explosive besides that we have a number of smaller eruptions that are similar in composition these are rhyolite lava flows they’re.
Really sticky and and gooey and don’t move very far from their source and these are in pink we also have basalt lavas that are more similar to what gets erupted in Hawaii it’s more rapid moving material and they’re found out here outside the caldera and then out in the area to the east as well one of the reasons that we know that Yellowstone still has an active magma system other than the fact that there’s so much heat coming out is the fact that.
We never see these basalt lavas actually making it out of the caldera and that’s because it’s denser than the rhyolite and it’s also relatively it it can’t penetrate through this very viscous sticky and less dense material and as a result it just ponds beneath the rhyolite.
Magma chamber and it loses its heat to the rhyolite when you’re.
Outside the call there are the rocks are.
Cooler and there isn’t as much there isn’t in any rhyolite and the basalt can just create cracks and come up and make it to the.
Surface when you see people claiming it’s overdue usually the numbers they come up with they say.
That the last eruption was 640 thousand years ago but that it it erupts every six hundred thousand years and so therefore it’s 40 thousand years overdue but in fact if you average the eruption intervals there’s 2.3 million and then there was another eruption 640,000 years ago and you average those numbers you come up with something that’s over 700.
Thousand years and so in reality even if you tried to make this argument it wouldn’t be overdue for another 70 thousand years or so but the other thing that is important to realize is.
That when anybody does statistics based on two eruptive intervals they’re there they’re just kind of playing games because we don’t know there’s no clock down there the magma is gonna erupt when it wants to erupt there’s been a lot of things that have happened.
Over the last 600,000 years that might indicate there’s less likely of an eruption for example about five or six hundred cubic kilometers or a couple hundred cubic miles of magma was erupted just in the last hundred and fifty thousand years so you might think.
That that would slow the clock down in terms of the next eruption the last piece of evidence we have in terms of that the next eruption at Yellowstone is that when when scientists or seismologists do tomography when they like a cat.
Scan on a human being you do a attempt tomographic image using seismic waves and when they try to image the magma chamber generally they find that the the magma that’s down there is not wholly molten there may be molten bodies down there there are on the order of a hundred or 200 cubic kilometers but they don’t see this massive magma chamber that’s all molten material so we don’t expect that there’s enough liquid magma down there to produce one of these immense eruptions as it happened in the geologic past at Yellowstone having.
Said that we don’t know everything it’s possible it will erupt it’s possible to have small lava flows it’s possible but not very likely that it’ll have another massive eruption ultimately this is stuff that’s happening four or five.
Miles beneath us but everything we know seems to indicate that nothing right now is truly unusual the kinds of activity we see it Yellowstone is the kind that’s been going on for the last hundred years and from our geologic evidence has gone on for thousands of years before then occasionally we get swarms of earthquakes and some of these swarms can be quite intense we had one here in 2009 in the end of 2008 that was almost a thousand.
Earthquakes and there were many of them that were above magnitude 3 some of them were felt in the northern part of the lake but that’s pretty much all that happened we had no evidence that there were any explosions that were occurring the caldera had been moving up for a period of years for about four years and the caldera had moved up about this this distance over a very broad area but we didn’t see any change that was occurring when the swarm was.
Happening and so we didn’t really see any of the other indicators.
That would make us really think that something bigger was about to happen in terms of a volcanic activity Northwest I’d be considering moving seriously the gist of it is this the federal government estimates 13,000 Americans will die in a major earthquake and tsunami in the Pacific Northwest it’s not a question of whether but.
When this earthquake is coming and it’s overdue mourning the most popular article on the New Yorkers website is rattling many Americans the really big one examines a Titanic earthquake and tsunami but not.
Where you might imagine a fault line called the Cascadia subduction zone runs for 700 miles off the Pacific Northwest Coast experts think it will trigger the worst national disaster in North American history and it is overdue it’s predicted to be worse than Hurricane Katrina worse than the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 scientists and FEMA the Federal Emergency Management Agency are warning of a.
Pending doom for the Pacific Northwest an earthquake along a little-known fault line that would kill thousands and affect millions consider that the magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Japan just a few years ago remember that killed more than 15,000 people in the north of Japan and injured thousands of others seismologists say that the.
Quake that will strike on our Pacific Northwest coastline should be even.2 they call such a quake a margin rupture quake and it’s every bit as bad as it.
Sounds here’s the reason for our entire continent since on the North American tectonic shelf right plate I should say off the coast of the Pacific Northwest from the top of Washington State all the way down to Northern California this is it and another plate called the Juan de Fuca is trying to slide up under North America but.
It’s it’s stuck we have an illustration over here in the big wall let me show you what this is this is our continent here these the this is a cascade of mountains this is the Cascadia.
What do they call it the Cascadia what.
The Cascadia bridge I was actually asking him but thank you the North American plate here and the Juan de Fuca plate here this one’s.
Sliding up under and eventually this is going to down send a huge wall of water up that wall will go.
All the way over to Japan and the other will come on to our on the art store within 15 minutes and when it.
Slips it will unleash not only a colossal earthquake but also that tsunami 700 miles long and in some places up.
To a 100 foot high wall of water and whatever it’s pushing like houses and dump trucks and in schools thousands and thousands will not escape The New Yorker quotes a FEMA official.
And I quote our operating assumption is that everything west of Interstate 5 will be toast everything west of Interstate 5 is gone that’s Seattle Tacoma Portland and Olympia Salem and Eugene wiped out altogether about 7.
Million people that’s not including tourists so think of summertime The New Yorker reports that FEMA calculations indicate the disaster will damage or destroy about a million buildings including 3,000 schools and one-third of all fire stations and perhaps the worst part of all of this these sorts of earthquakes happen at regular intervals in.
Exactly this part of the world have forever on average according to seismologist about every 240 years so when was.
The last one of these these massive 9.2 or so earthquakes well the last one was more than 300 years ago the Year 1700 it struck in the Pacific Northwest and sent a 600 foot wave of water all the way to Japan so right now on average the Pacific Northwest is decades overdue for the really really big one CBS News science and futures contributor Michio Kaku Co is a.
Physics professor at the city university of new york good morning morning so it’s overdue when while it might come well this is the mother of all earthquake faults it can pack wallop thirty times that of the San Andreas Fault so forget how all the Hollywood hype about the San Andreas Fault we’re talking about an.
To what devastated northern Japan which killed over 15,000 people and caused a quarter of a trillion dollars in property damage Cascadia subduction zone stretches about 700 miles from Cape Mendocino California to Vancouver Canada big cities expected to be affected include Seattle in Portland some scientists believe the earthquake when it goes off will reach between eight point seven and nine point two on the.
Richter scale and cause a tsunami one was three hundred and fifteen years ago we think the cycle time is roughly 240 years do the math we are overdue.
In this calculation with another big one we’ve known about the Cascadia subduction zone for quite a while it’s a serious risk a big earthquake in the Pacific Northwest could be the worst disaster the country has faced historically all around the world large changes to both Earth’s climate and the stability of its crust and tectonic plates has been observed for years with building alarm after a series of devastating earthquakes hit.
Mexico killing hundreds of people and volcanoes all across the plate boundaries.
Rumbled back to life many experts and scientists are becoming increasingly worried that the Ring of Fire has awakened the first and most important place to start is by understanding what the Ring of Fire is and how all of this is connected to our current time the rain of fire represents a series of large tectonic plate boundaries in the Pacific Basin covering more than 25,000 miles which includes 75% of all the active.
Volcanoes on earth roughly 90% of all earthquake activity on the planet occurs along this dynamic boundary showing the extreme instability and dangers associated for communities living near them the rain of fire is created from numerous plate boundaries interacting against.
One another either from being subducted orab lifted this collision is a trigger for what causes.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes millions of people live in close proximity to these faults and often forget how active they could become our short lifetimes as humans pales in comparison to that of the geologic record of time which shows devastating events that occurred 12,000 years ago leading to the rapid end of.
The ice age and the disappearance of ancient civilizations long ago we now only consider just a myth during that time period evidence suggests that the tectonic plates of the planet became disrupted by a possible pole shift of the magnetic field of the earth which led to enormous tsunamis in volcanic eruptions that changed the entire climate.
Of the planet for thousands of years this time period known as the Younger Dryas featured rapid warming within the planet and disruptions to the.
Oceans and plates from some unknown gravitational force not yet acknowledged by.
Mainstream scientists that seems to be periodically affecting the earth every few thousand years after years of record global temperatures across the planet with melting glaciers and ice caps this rapid warming cycle of the earth and the.
Building pressure within is once again leading to great instability of the crustal plates climates and oceans and is raising alarm bells with many scientists over the last several months thousands of medium-sized earthquakes known as swarms ranging up to 8.1 on the Richter scale have been infecting the entire Ring of Fire plate boundary with increasing intensity most of this activity has.